Туберкулез легких симптомы

Симптомы туберкулеза легких разнообразны и зависят от его формы  | Симптомы туберкулеза легких разнообразны и зависят от его формы

Симптомы туберкулеза легких разнообразны и зависят от его формы

Туберкулез легких — это  инфекционное заболевание, характеризующееся образованием в пораженных тканях легких очагов воспаления и выраженной общей болезненной реакцией организма. Во многих экономически развитых странах, в числе и в России, заболеваемость туберкулезом значительно снизилась, снизилась также и смертность от него. Наиболее успехами являются выздоровления среди детей, подростков и женщин, в меньшей степени — среди мужчин, особенно пожилого возраста. Тем не менее, туберкулез всё ещё остается распространенным заболеванием.

Туберкулез легких симптомы

Симптомы туберкулеза легких очень разные и зависят они от формы туберкулеза и состояния иммунной системы инфицированного человека. Больной может длительное время болеть туберкулезом и не подозревать об этом, а потом вдруг может резко слечь, и это будет выглядеть как острая пневмония или острая респираторная вирусная инфекция (ОРВИ). Начальные признаки туберкулеза легких очень похожи на признаки  других заболеваний, и это очень мешает врачам в  постановке правильного диагноза.

Симптомы при первичном туберкулезе  легких

Первичный туберкулез легких развивается вследствие проникновения возбудителей туберкулеза в организм, который ранее с этими возбудителями не встречался.

После проникновения в легкие туберкулезные палочки начинают активно размножаться, формируя очаг воспаления, вокруг которого скапливаются клетки иммунной системы.

Симптомы этой стадии туберкулеза легких не специфичны и выражены слабо. Чаще всего больные жалуются на сильную усталость, недомогание, разбитость, снижение аппетита, повышенную потливость по ночам. В большинстве случаев наблюдается длительное, но невысокое повышение температуры и потеря веса. Но в большинстве случаев симптомы болезни выражены настолько слабо, что инфицированный человек вообще не обращает никакого внимания на такие мелочи.

Симптомы при вторичном туберкулезе легких

 Возникновение вторичного туберкулеза связано с повторным заражением больного | Возникновение вторичного туберкулеза связано с повторным заражением больного

Возникновение вторичного туберкулеза связано с повторным заражением больного

Формы туберкулеза, которые мы опишем ниже, в большинстве своем относятся к вторичному туберкулезу легких. Возникновение вторичного туберкулеза связано либо с реактивацией более раннего очага инфекции, либо с повторным заражением больного.

Очаговый туберкулез легких

Очаговый туберкулез обычно возникает вследствие реактивации инфекции в очаге туберкулеза перенесенного ранее

Очаговый туберкулез обычно возникает вследствие реактивации инфекции в очаге туберкулеза перенесенного ранее

Очаговый туберкулез легких характеризуется наличием в легких только одного очага воспаления. Такой очаг может быть различных размеров. Очаговый туберкулез обычно возникает вследствие реактивации инфекции в очаге туберкулеза перенесенного ранее. Развивающийся очаговый туберкулез называют инфильтративным туберкулезом. Распространение инфекции такого туберкулеза в легких зачастую  приводит к формированию очага пневмонии.

Симптомы очагового туберкулеза легких (повышение температуры, кашель) могут напоминать симптомы обычной пневмонии или бронхита. Но для  туберкулеза, в отличии от пневмонии и бронхита, характерно кровохарканье, длительное развитие симптомов болезни, отсутствие эффекта от обычного лечения.

Диссеминированный туберкулез легких

Диссеминированный туберкулез характеризуется формированием в легких множеством очагов инфекции

Диссеминированный туберкулез характеризуется формированием в легких множеством очагов инфекции

Диссеминированный (рассеянный) туберкулез легких  характеризуется формированием в легких множества очагов  различных размеров. Течение такой формы туберкулеза может быть острым, подострым и хроническим. Возникновению диссеминированного туберкулеза часто способствуют снижение активности иммунной системы организма, недостаток витаминов и хронические болезни.

Симптомы диссеминированного туберкулеза не специфичны, часто симптомы этого вида туберкулеза принимают за симптомы банальной простуды, ОРЗ, бронхита или пневмонии. Следует обратить внимание на тот факт, что при туберкулезе симптомы постепенно нарастают и не проходят достаточно длительное время.

Тяжелые формы диссеминированного туберкулез протекают с симптомами выраженного нарушения работы легких (кашель, хрипы, одышка), симптомами раздражения оболочек головного мозга (напряжение мышц затылка, рвота), сильной интоксикацией организма (сильная температура, нарушение сознания и др.).

Кавернозный туберкулез легких

Кавернозный туберкулез легких характеризуется формированием массивных областей разрушения легочной ткани

Кавернозный туберкулез легких характеризуется формированием массивных областей разрушения легочной ткани

Кавернозный туберкулез легких характеризуется формированием массивных областей разрушения легочной ткани, на месте которой остается полость, стеки которой состоят из плотной соединительной ткани.Такие области разрушения называются кавернами, их размеры могут достигать нескольких сантиметров ( 6 и более ). Каверны при туберкулезе развиваются довольно длительное время и могут вызывать легочное кровотечение, формирование пневмоторакса и пр.

Если туберкулез  перешел в хроническую форму, такую как фиброзно — кавернозный туберкулез легких, то симптомы туберкулеза легких несколько меняются. Пациента  будет беспокоить кашель с мокротой, субфебрильная температура тела, будет нарастать одышка, увеличится риск кровохарканья или даже кровотечения. При фиброзно — кавернозном туберкулезе течение заболевания чаще всего носит волнообразный характер, в связи с чем симптомы туберкулеза легких будут то более выраженные, то менее выраженные.

 У больных хроническим туберкулезом легких характерный внешний вид: они худощавы, цвет лица бледный с сероватым оттенком,  такие люди имеют нездоровый вид.

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