Многих людей интересует… вопрос: «От чего появляется туберкулез?». В данной публикации попробуем с этим разобраться.
Туберкулёз (tuberculosis; лат. tuberculum бугорок + -?sis) — болезнь, вызываемая микобактериями туберкулеза. Наиболее часто поражаются органы дыхания.
Этиология. Возбудителями Т. являются кислотоустойчивые микобактерии, открытые немецким бактериологом Кохом (R. Koch) в 1882 г., — микобактерии туберкулеза.
Наиболее часто туберкулез у человека вызывают микобактерии туберкулеза человеческого вида, реже бычьего вида. Микобактерии туберкулеза представляют собой тонкие, прямые или слегка изогнутые палочки длиной 1—10 мкм, шириной 0,2—0,6 мкм, гомогенные или зернистые со слегка закругленными концами (рис.). Они устойчивы к воздействию факторов окружающей среды: в уличной пыли сохраняются до 10 дней, на страницах книг — до 3 мес., в воде — до 5 мес. Под влиянием солнечного света культура микобактерий туберкулеза погибает через 90 мин, ультрафиолетовые лучи убивают ее в течение 2—3 мин. При кипячении микобактерии туберкулеза погибают во влажной мокроте через 5 мин, в высохшей мокроте — через 45 мин. При воздействии препаратов, выделяющих свободный активный хлор (3—5% растворы хлорамина; 1—2% растворы хлорамина, активированные сульфатом аммония; 10—20% растворы хлорной извести и др.), гибель возбудителей Т. происходит через 3—5 ч. Под влиянием различных факторов микобактерий туберкулеза способны трансформироваться как в ультрамелкие фильтрующиеся частицы, так и в гигантские ветвистые формы. Попадая в благоприятные условия, микобактерий туберкулеза вновь могут приобретать типичную форму.
Эпидемиология. В эпидемиологии Т. важное значение имеют медико-биологические факторы, связанные с взаимодействием организма человека и возбудителем заболевания, и социальные, определяющие состояние здоровья населения в целом и отдельных его групп.
Может от чего появиться туберкулез? Основным источником возбудителей инфекции является больной Т. человек, выделяющий их в окружающую среду. Как правило, это больные Т. легких, в мокроте которых содержатся микобактерии туберкулеза. Наиболее опасны в зпидемиологическом отношении больные с постоянным обильным бактериовыделением. Один такой больной, не соблюдающий правила личной гигиены, способен за год инфицировать до 10—12 человек. При скудном непостоянном бактериовыделении опасность заражения Т. существует только в условиях тесного контакта с больным. Итак, от чего появляется туберкулез, вернее, как происходит заражение? В большинстве случаев заражение Т. происходит воздушно-капельным путем, реже воздушно-пылевым и алиментарным. Описано около 100 случаев внутриутробного заражения плода при Т. у беременных.
Вторым по значимости источником возбудителей инфекции является больной Т. крупный рогатый скот. К более редким источникам возбудителей инфекции относят больных Т. свиней, овец, верблюдов, кошек, собак, птиц и других животных. Человек может заразиться от больного Т. животного воздушно-капельным, воздушно-пылевым, контактным путем, а также при употреблении в пищу некипяченого и непастеризованного молока (и молочных продуктов из него), реже мяса больного животного. Наибольшему риску заражения Т. от больных животных подвержены животноводы и члены их семей.
Инфицирование организма микобактериями туберкулеза далеко не всегда приводит к болезни. Ведущую роль в развитии Т. играют неблагоприятные условия жизни и снижение сопротивляемости организма. Восприимчивость к Т. повышается при плохом питании, длительном физическом перенапряжении, эмоциональных стрессах, некоторых хронических болезнях (например, сахарном диабете, язвенной болезни, хроническом алкоголизме, наркомании, пневмокониозах, системных болезнях, требующих длительного приема глюкокортикостероидных и цитотоксических препаратов). Имеет значение и наследственная предрасположенность или резистентность к туберкулезу.
Теперь вы уже должны понимать, от чего появляется туберкулез.
Желаем вам здоровья!
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